Infectious Diseases

We provide consultative services to hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients. Inpatient consultative services are provided both routinely and on an emergency basis, when necessary.

There are many diseases related to travel. Some of these include:

Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) – A parasite which is transmitted to animals and people by insect vectors and is found only in the Americas (mainly in rural areas of Latin America where poverty is widespread. Also referred to as American trypanosomiasis.

Cholera – Acute diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine (Vibrio Cholerae) and is transmitted by contaminated food and water.

Dengue Fever – There are four of these viruses (RNA, Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae and DENV) transmitted from the bite of an infected Aedes aegypti, most commonly referred to as a mosquito. Female mosquitos acquire DENV by biting viremic humans and become infective after an extrinsic incubation period of 8-12 days. The infected mosquito can then transmit DENV for the rest of its life (lifespan is approximately 1 month).

Hepatitis – Hepatitis means inflamation of the liver and also refers to a group of viral infections that affect the liver. The most common types are Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. Viral hepatitis is the leading cause of liver cancer and the most common reason for liver transplantation. Hepatitis A -Transmission can occur through direct person-to-person contact, exposure to contaminated water, ice, or shellfish harvested from sewage-contaminated water; or from fruits, vegetables or other foods that are eaten uncooked and that were contaminated during harvesting or subsequent handling. Hepatis B – Transmission by activities that involve contact with the blood, blood products, and other body fluids (such as semen). Hepatitis C – Transmission is bloodborne and occurs mainly through sharing drug-injection equipment, from transfusion of unscreened blood, or from untreated clotting factors. In developing countries, unsterile medicinal and other injection practices account for many infections. HCV is infrequently transmitted through sexual contact.

Malaria – Transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. Occasionally transmission occurs by blood transfusion, organ transplantation, needle sharing, or congenitally from mother to fetus.

Typhoid Fever – Typhoid is an acute, life-threatening febrile illness caused by the bacterium (Salmonella enterica ) serotype Typhi. Transmitted by humans, no animal or environmental reservoirs have been identified. Typhoid and paratyphoid fever are most often acquired through consumption of water or food that has been contaminated by feces of an acutely infected or convalescent person or a chronic, asymptomatic carrier.

Some countries require an Official International Certificate of Vaccination for proof of Yellow Fever. Failure to comply can sometimes result in denial to enter a specific country. Other shots may be strongly recommended to protect your health and facilitate your travel from country to country.

Getting ready to travel abroad?
Learn more about recommended (and required) vaccinations for international travel.